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Robert Mugabe Dead: The Former Zimbabwe President Dies at 95

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He chaired the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist. He self-identified as a socialist after the 1990s. His policies have been described as Mugabeism.
Robert Mugabe Dead: The Former Zimbabwe President Dies at 95

Robert Mugabe, the founding father of Zimbabwe who ruled the country with an iron fist for more than three decades, has died, according to President Emmerson Mnangagwa. He was 95.

Rumors had swirled around the health of the ex-president, who spent months in a hospital in Singapore earlier this year. Details of what ailed him were a closely guarded secret.
Mugabe -- who infamously claimed that "only God" could ever remove him from office -- was deposed in a coup in 2017, when members of his own party turned against him after he dismissed then vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa to make way for his wife, Grace.
Mnangagwa would go on to become Zimbabwe's next president. CNN

In 2000, he led a campaign to evict white farmers from their land, which was given to black Zimbabweans, and led to famine.

His leadership — that saw him rule like a medieval king who rewarded his favourites but punished threats — saw the nation of almost 13 million people considered a pariah on the international stage.

But while his country languished, the Mugabe family became known for displaying their lavish lifestyle on social media.

Mugabe, who had been the world's oldest head of state at 93, was ultimately ousted from power after a military coup in 2017.

Thousands took to the streets in celebration.

After resigning, Mugabe was placed under house arrest with fears he would allow his deeply unpopular wife Grace to "usurp constitutional power".

Before his death, it is understood he had made frequent visits to Singapore for medical care — as Zimbabwe's own public health system crumbled due to his government's lack of investment.

Photographs of Mugabe released in June are believed to be some of the last taken of him, showing the former dictator appearing slumped and frail with a white beard.

In another picture, showing him wearing a black Adidas tracksuit, he can be seen in a wheelchair sitting next to his son Robert. The Sun
Robert Mugabe Dead: The Former Zimbabwe President Dies at 95

Killing Civilians

It was the prelude to a much bloodier time, from 1983 to 1985, when Mr. Mugabe sent his North Korean-trained Fifth Brigade into the western area of Zimbabwe known as Matabeleland, Mr. Nkomo’s political power base, to hunt down so-called dissidents. Most of the estimated 10,000 people who died in the campaign were civilians.

Less remembered was the election in 1985, when the white minority voted to award Ian D. Smith, the last white prime minister of Rhodesia, all 20 parliamentary seats that had been guaranteed for whites at Lancaster House. Mr. Smith, who had waged war to keep whites in power, had once vowed that majority rule would never come to Rhodesia, “not in a thousand years.”

For Mr. Mugabe, the vote in favor of his white nemesis was an affront, a rejection of all his conciliatory gestures that had permitted the white minority to enjoy its sunlit African idyll, almost as if the government had not changed at all. It was from that moment, some of his biographers have said, that his commitment to conciliation weakened.

In 1987 oversaw an uneven merger of his party with Mr. Nkomo’s ZAPU, which was dissolved. His rival’s power base was now eliminated. Then, later that year, Mr. Mugabe engineered constitutional amendments that scrapped the figurehead presidency enshrined at independence and permitted him to take the title of executive president, combining the roles of head of state, head of government and military commander-in-chief.

The changes also abolished the constitutional provisions for the white minority to be guaranteed 20 parliamentary seats.

On Jan. 1, 1988, Prime Minister Mugabe became Zimbabwe’s first executive president.

For much of the 1980s, Mr. Mugabe’s control was never really challenged. Enormous spending on education and health had produced a prosperous and increasingly urbanized country, and he had basked in acclaim — the model leader for postcolonial Africa. That changed in 1990, when Nelson Mandela, finally free after 27 years in prison, became Africa’s global statesman.

Mr. Mandela exuded a gravitas and natural authority that Mr. Mugabe could never match, and many believed that his resentment of Mr. Mandela’s easy dominance of the global stage turned Mr. Mugabe inward, to nurse his grievances. Nytime

The Queen With President Mugabe Of Zimbabwe and his wife at Buckingham Palace.

The Queen With President Mugabe Of Zimbabwe and his wife at Buckingham Palace.

Biography:

Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a colony of the British Empire governed by its white minority, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent state led by representatives of the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974.

On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominantly white government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement ended the war and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory. As Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed Marxist desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.

Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also declined. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1985, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally, he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis.

Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, drastic economic decline, and international sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa.

Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure. He was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity. Wikipedia
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