The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers—the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.


1. World Trade Center (1973–2001)


World Trade Center (1973–2001)
World Trade Center, New York, aerial view March 2001.

The core of the complex was built between 1966 and 1975, at a cost of $400 million (equivalent to $2.27 billion in 2018). During its existence, the World Trade Center experienced several major incidents, including a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993, and a bank robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey decided to privatize it by leasing the buildings to a private company to manage. It awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.

September 11, 2001

On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the North and South Towers within minutes of each other; two hours later, both towers collapsed. The attacks killed 2,606 people in and within the vicinity of the towers, as well as all 157 on board the two aircraft. Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the buildings in the complex, and caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area.

The cleanup and recovery process at the World Trade Center site took eight months, during which the remains of the other buildings were demolished. A new World Trade Center complex is being built with six new skyscrapers and several other buildings, many of which have already been completed. A memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks, a new rapid transit hub, and an elevated park have been opened. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere at 1,776 feet (541 m), is the lead building for the new complex, and was completed in November 2014.

During its existence, the World Trade Center was one of the major icons of New York City. It had a major role in popular culture and according to one estimate was depicted in 472 films. Following the World Trade Center's destruction, mentions of the complex were altered or deleted, and several dozen "memorial films" were created.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure seriously harmed the economy of New York City and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year.

On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

Photo of the 9/11 memorial taken from the World Financial Center, as it appeared in June 2012.
Photo of the 9/11 memorial taken from the World Financial Center, as it appeared in June 2012

2. One World Trade Center


One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center in New York City is the tallest building in North America.


One World Trade Center (also known as One WTC or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the seventh-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.

The building's architect is David Childs, whose firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) also designed the Burj Khalifa and the Willis Tower. The construction of below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the new building began on April 27, 2006. One World Trade Center became the tallest structure in New York City on April 30, 2012, when it surpassed the height of the Empire State Building. The tower's steel structure was topped out on August 30, 2012. On May 10, 2013, the final component of the skyscraper's spire was installed, making the building, including its spire, reach a total height of 1,776 feet (541 m). Its height in feet is a deliberate reference to the year when the United States Declaration of Independence was signed. The building opened on November 3, 2014; the One World Observatory opened on May 29, 2015.

On March 26, 2009, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) confirmed that the building would be officially known by its legal name of "One World Trade Center", rather than its colloquial name of "Freedom Tower". The building is 104 standard floors high, but the tower has only 94 actual stories.

An estimate in February 2007 placed the initial construction cost of One World Trade Center at about $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter). However, the tower's total estimated construction cost had risen to $3.9 billion by April 2012, making it the most expensive building in the world at the time. The tower's construction was partly funded by approximately $1 billion of insurance money that Silverstein received for his losses in the September 11 attacks. The State of New York provided an additional $250 million, and the Port Authority agreed to give $1 billion, which would be obtained through the sale of bonds. The Port Authority raised prices for bridge and tunnel tolls to raise funds, with a 56 percent toll increase scheduled between 2011 and 2015; however, the proceeds of these increases were not used to pay for the tower's construction.

World Trade Center (2001–present)



Five towers, a 9/11 memorial and museum, a mall, a transportation hub, a parking lot, a park, a church, and a performing arts venue are to eventually occupy the new World Trade Center. As of March 2019, progress on the construction of the redesigned site was as follows:

1. One World Trade Center: is the centerpiece of Daniel Libeskind's design. The building rises to 1,368 feet (417 m), the height of the original 1 World Trade Center (The North Tower), and its spire rises to the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m). This height refers to 1776, the year in which the United States Declaration of Independence was signed.

One World Trade Center

The tower was a collaboration between Studio Daniel Libeskind and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill architect David Childs.[85] Childs acted as the design architect and project manager for the tower, and Daniel Libeskind collaborated on the concept and schematic design. The building opened on November 3, 2014.


2 World Trade Center


2 World Trade Center, also known as 200 Greenwich Street, was designed by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels. The building's gardens connect the adjacent neighborhood of Tribeca with the financial district at the World Trade Center. Construction of everything up to street level was completed in mid-2013, but the rest of the building has yet to be built until tenants for 2 WTC can be found. Date of completion: 2022.

3 World Trade Center



3 World Trade Center, located at 175 Greenwich Street, was designed by Richard Rogers Partnership. It stands across Greenwich Street from the Memorial's two reflecting pools. The below-grade foundations and the ground-level podium was completed by October 2013. After a two-year stoppage in above-ground construction, the tower project itself started in August 2014, and the building opened on June 11, 2018.

3 World Trade Center
3 World Trade Center

4 World Trade Center



4 World Trade Center, also known as 150 Greenwich Street, was designed by Maki and Associates. The building opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property.

4 World Trade Center
4 World Trade Center


5 World Trade Center


5 World Trade Center, which was supposed to stand on the site of the Deutsche Bank Building, was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox. Although the foundation was completed in 2013, construction on the main structure never commenced.

7 World Trade Center stands off of Port Authority property. David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill designed the tower. The building is 52 stories tall (plus one underground floor), making it the 28th-tallest in New York. It opened on May 23, 2006, achieving LEED gold status and being the first tower in the complex to reopen.

7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center



World Trade Center Transportation Hub


The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's formal name for the new PATH station and the associated transit and retail complex that opened on March 3, 2016. The station's renaming took place when the station reopened.

World Trade Center Transportation Hub:
World Trade Center Transportation Hub

It was designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and composed of a train station with a large and open mezzanine under the National September 11 Memorial plaza. This mezzanine is connected to an aboveground head house structure called the Oculus—located between 2 World Trade Center and 3 World Trade Center—as well as to public concourses under the various towers in the World Trade Center complex.

World Trade Center Transportation Hub:


Performing Arts Center


The Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center at the World Trade Center (PACWTC), also called the Performing Arts Center for short, is a multi-space, 150 to 800-seat performing arts center under construction at the northeast corner of the World Trade Center complex. The site is located at the intersection of Vesey, Fulton and Greenwich Streets in Manhattan, New York City.

Performing Arts Center
Performing Arts Center

Construction started: August 31, 2017
Completed: 2020–2022 (estimated)
Cost : $275 million


Vehicular Security Center


The World Trade Center Vehicle Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facility, or simply the Vehicular Security Center (VSC), is a secure complex for truck delivery and underground parking at the World Trade Center. The entrance to the VSC is located at street-level along the southern edge of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum on Liberty Street.

Vehicular Security Center
Vehicular Security Center

The VSC is connected via tunnels that feed the entire 16-acre (65,000 m2) WTC complex, linking the security checkpoint at its entrance with the buildings and services at the complex requiring vehicular services. Underground garages provide parking for tenants, visitors, and tour buses.


Liberty Park


Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in Lower Manhattan.

Liberty Park
Liberty Park

The park, which opened on June 29, 2016, is located above the World Trade Center's Vehicular Security Center. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.


St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church


The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church (officially the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and National Shrine) is a church under construction as part of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City. The church is being developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and was designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. Originally scheduled to be completed in 2017, the church's construction was later stalled.

St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
The future St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church at Liberty Park in New York City, seen in September 2018 from the west

The church is located in Liberty Park, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. Its dome is inspired by the world-famous Byzantine Church of the Savior in Edirnekapı, Istanbul. It will contain a meditation/bereavement space and a community room housed in the upper levels above the Narthex "to welcome visitors and faithful." According to its official website, the new "Saint Nicholas would welcome all and be a House of Prayer for all people."

It will replace the original church of the same name located at 155 Cedar Street, which was destroyed on September 11, 2001 when the South Tower of the original World Trade Center collapsed after being struck by United Airlines Flight 175. It was the only building not part of the original World Trade Center complex to be completely destroyed as a result of the attacks, although the Deutsche Bank Building next door was later demolished due to severe damage and contamination. Date of completion: September 11, 2021; 19 months' time.


Fiterman Hall: 


The original Fiterman Hall opened in 1959 and occupied a block bounded by Greenwich Street, Barclay Street, West Broadway, and Park Place. It was donated to BMCC in 1993 by Miles and Shirley Fiterman, for whom the building was subsequently named. At the time, it was the largest private donation to a community college in the U.S. history. In 2000, the State of New York Dormitory Authority, which owned the building, began a massive renovation to better adapt the building for classroom use.

Fiterman Hall was heavily damaged from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center on 9/11.
Fiterman Hall was heavily damaged from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center on 9/11.

During the September 11 attacks in 2001, the building's structure was heavily compromised by debris from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center, and the renovation was never completed. The building became unsafe to occupy because of exposed asbestos and mold growth. Since traditional demolition would result in an unacceptable environmental impact, the building was scheduled for deconstruction and decontamination as a part of the Lower Manhattan redevelopment project.

New Fiterman Hall
New Fiterman Hall

Fiterman Hall was to be replaced by a new building designed by the architectural firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners after the deconstruction, and was scheduled to be completed by February 2007. However, environmental impact concerns and funding issues caused numerous delays. At a press conference at BMCC on November 13, 2008, city and state officials announced a new agreement that revised demolition and reconstruction plans through a funding agreement among New York City, New York State, and the City University of New York. In addition, approximately $80 million from an insurance settlement would be applied to the project's budget. Under the plan, the new Fiterman Hall was completed in 2012.


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